Godfrey of Bouillon (French: Godefroy, Dutch: Godfried, German: Gottfried, Latin: Godefridus Bullionensis; 18 September 1060 – 18 July 1100) was a French nobleman and pre-eminent leader of the First Crusade. First ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem from Juy 22, 1099 to July 18,1100, he avoided the title of king, preferring that of princeps or Defender of the Holy Sepulchre.
"The Templar Order was not the monolithic entity which the dearth of internal documents -due to time, neglect, and the violence of its suppression- may imply. At least two extremes vied for control within the Order.
Despite the Hospitallers' headstart, the Templars soon eclipsed them. This was probably the origin for the later antipathy between the two orders. Usually, their rivalry was only political, but sometimes it could lead to civil war.
"The arabization of the Knights Templar was of two types: real and imagined. While real examples of Templar arabization in the Holy Land aroused the occasional ire of Europeans back home, it was never serious enough to threaten the Order itself. (...)
"The connection between the Templars and the Shroud of Turin is still questionable. The link is in the similarity of the name of the Shroud's medieval "discoverer" Geoffrey de Charny, to that of Geoffroi de Charnay, the Preceptor of Normandy who was burned with Jacques de Malay as a relapsed heretic in 1314. Proof enough?
"Medieval banking existed in a moral gray area from the 10th century until well into the 15th century. Before this period, Europe was too poor to support an extensive, morally corrupting banking system. By the end of the 15th century, the major Italian banking houses had learned ways of circumventing Church disapproval in their financial transactions. When they could not find loopholes, they increasingly violated the religious prohibitions.