The subsurface of Temple Mount, Jerusalem

The subterranean part of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem contains a lot of acheological information mirroring its intensive use during many centuries. Part of this archeological information is documented bij artefacts from the Stone and Bronze Age up to and including the 20th century found by the Temple Mount Sifting Project (TMSP).

Approximately one in four pottery fragments recovered by the TMSP date to the Early Islamic Period (638-1099), mostly consisting of Ummayad tableware and storage vessels, and Abbasid tableware, storage and cooking vessels. Other finds include many architectural elements connected to the construction of the Dome of the Rock and the Al-Aqsa Mosque, the most prominent being thousands of colored and gilded mosaic tesserae belonging to wall mosaics, most likely the mosaics akin to those adorning the inner walls of the dome of the rock, which adorned the outer walls till their replacement by glazed tiles in the 16th century.


During the Crusader period (1099-1187) the sub-floor structure of the Temple Mount was used as a Opus Sectile tiles from this era match up exactly to patterns seen under the Dome of the Rock's carpeting, as well as the churches of the Holy Sepulchre and of St. John the Baptist.
stables by the Knights Templar, which gave Solomon's Stables its current name. This use is reflected in finds such as hundreds of armor scales, horseshoe nails, and arrowheads. Over a hundred silver Crusader coins make up the biggest and most varied collection of such coins from Jerusalem.

Below some additional sources on the subsurface of Temple Mount.

Illustrations Crusader horseshoe nails and arrowhead, source Temple Mount Sifting Project; Source introductory text Wikipedia 

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