The Knights Templar, monks and soldiers - part 2

This blog is a translation from French to English of parts of the web-article "Les Templiers, moines et soldats" from

King Baldwin of Jerusalem
acknowledges the Knights Templar
In this interview, the medievalist Alain Demurger elaborates on the role on the soldiers of the Holy Land and their presence among the Crusaders, the Franks, the Christians of the Orient and the Muslims. When were the Orders of Hospitallers and Templars born? What was their original purpose and how did this develop?

When and how were these orders of "monk soldiers", the Templars and the Hospitallers, born?
Alain DemurgerThe Order of the Knights Templar was established during the years 1115-1120 in respons to military needs in the the Orient. This is the first religious order with such a military function to be recognized, at the Council of Troyes in 1129. At first the Templars gave themselves the mission to protect and assist the pilgrims. But soon, they were integrated into the armies of Frankish States of Outre Mer.

The order of the Hospitallers was founded somewhat earlier, around 1050, by Amalfi merchants who were at Jerusalem and had obtained from the Sultan of Egypt land in Jerusalem to build a hospital. The Order knew a fast development after the first crusade. At first a charitable order only (TN), militarization developed gradually, first to defend their own property. Later on because they saw that the military vocation of the Templars encouraged rich donations from knights and faithful. By 1180, the Hospitaller order was completely militarized, but managed to keep a balance with hospital and charitable services. This was the key to its success.

The Knights Templar, monks and soldiers - part 1

source Wikipedia
This blog is a translation from French to English of webarticle "Les Templiers, moines et soldats" from

In this interview, the medievalist Alain Demurger elaborates on the role of the soldiers of the Holy Land and their presence among the Crusaders, the Franks, the Christians of Outre Mer (the Orient) and the Muslims. 

When were the Orders of Hospitallers and Templars born? What was their original purpose and how did this develop. 

The first crusaders arrived in the Holy Land at the end of the eleventh century. What did they find there?

Alain Demurger: A mosaic of peoples: Turks, Arabs, Kurds, Muslims divided between Shiites and Sunnites, and Christians, the majority, among whom the Crusaders found support. Although, initially, these oriental Christians were considered heretics by Rome.  

The purpose of the First Crusade was the liberation of the Holy City. But once there, the Franks organized the construction of manors following the Western model, and founded four local Latin states:the kingdom of Jerusalem, of which Baldwin of Boulogne, the brother of Godfrey of Boulogne (or Bouillon), eventually proclaimed himself king, the Principality of Antioch, the County of Edessa in the interior, and that of Tripoli, between Antioch and Jerusalem. The creation of these states has paved the way for fifty years of immigration of the Franks. These were integrated into the population mosaic, and their descendants, who were called "poulains" (better term welcome, TN), gave rise to large baronies.

There quickly developed differences between these "poulains" and new crusaders that arrived later. The
Franks of Outre Mer got to know the environment, making negotiations and truces. They had no fallback and little choice but to enroll in time, and even make compromises with the inhabitant Muslims. Not withstanding that, the Crusaders had originally made the voyage to fight, and die quickly in Jerusalem, or afterwards go back home. Also, the Franks of Outre Mer were regularly accused of treason and resistance by the Crusaders.

The military religious orders were a bit in between. They did establish themselves (a decade after the conquest of Jerusalem, TN) in the regio, but their members were constantly renewed from the West.

For sale in London UK - Knights Templar documents

Knights Templar & Knights Hospitallers in Yorkshire.-

Archive of 28 charters and deeds of gifts of land and property in West Yorkshire to the Knights Templar, belonging to the preceptory of Temple Newsam, "Milites Templi Salomonis", and to the Knights Hospitallers, belonging to the preceptory of Newland [Wakefield], manuscripts in Latin, on vellum, 12 intact seals (one with original protective fibre bag) in red and white wax, impressed with various family marks, including: birds, fleur-de-lys, a standing figure and other devices, seven Templar deeds with early dockets of variants of Newsam, a few very small wormholes, one or two a little damp-stained, one nibbled at the edges, folds, slightly creased and browned, an attractive collection in overall fine condition, v.s. (largest 132 x 173mm. & smallest 58 x 125mm.), undated, [c. 1230 - not after 1308].

Lands gifted to the Knights Templar and Knights Hospitallers in the 13th century. Documents relating to the Knights Templar are extremely rare at auction and no other comparable archive has appeared in the last 50 years.

(1). 10 charters and deeds of gifts to the Knights Templar of Temple Newsam, comprising: Richard de Rihil [Ryhill], of c. 20 acres in South Crossland, land in Waderode (land on the river Calder), one and a half acres by the moor near Adam le Venur with rights of burning, building and fencing (3 deeds); Lady Alina, widow, of Crossland, daughter of Philip de Rihill, of half a house or toft, which Elias, son of Adam le Venur held and the right to take wood for building and burning within the boundaries of Crossland, as well as pannage for their pigs within the boundaries of the donors woods; Thomas of Turstainlande [Thurstonland], of one and a half acres and an acre in Thurstonland (2 deeds); Roger son of Walter
de Thorneton [?Roger de Thornton who granted in 1288 his land at Wilsden to the Abbot of Byland] one assart in Greteland [Greetland] called Brendesidewaie Rod, annually to the donor and his heirs 3s 1½d for all services; Ralf Tagun, son of Jordan Tagun, of a grant and quitclaim of the house which his father Jordan Tagun gave them, and one and a half acres in Fullecroft; Robert son of William de Lepton, of ten acres in Lepton; Alexander de Nevile, of all land which his brothers gave the Templars, a bovate in Lepton, the assart held by Richard des Estages and that by Hugh de Estages, a meadow held by Iwan de Lepton, and an assart in Lepton called Scakelsahe held by Richard de
Spinis, also pasture for two hundred sheep and ten cows for two years in the common fields of Lepton, witnesses: Brother Suanus, Samuel the Chaplain, Gilbert Chaplain of "Alemab", Sir Jordan de Insula [Lisle, an Isle of Wight family], Sir John de Insula [?of Woodburn], Sir Thomas, Chaplain of the Temple, G. de Notton, Seneschal [?Geoffrey de Notton, of Notton, near Wakefield, d. 1280], Sir William de Sumerville [?of Linton and Carnwath], Sir Eli[as] de Albo Monasterio [Whitchurch] and others.

(2). 17 charters and deeds of gifts to the Knights Hospitallers of the preceptory of Newland, comprising: Alan, son of Simon de Wately, of all Hardinge Rode and land in Colresle; Robert de Weteley [Whitley or Wheatley], of a third part of the land his uncle gave in Whitley; Matilda of Stanforham of 3s which Jordan, son of Matthew pays from the rent of Flackton [Flockton]; Elias, son of Haswi of Heton [Kirkheaton], of land in Heton; William, son of Michael of Brethwisel, of land in Brethwisel; Adam, son of Jordan of Queteleye [Whitley], of a piece of land called Stodlee in Whitley; Elias, son of Hasqui of Heton, of three acres in Heton; Adam, son of Robert de Notton, of land between the stream and castle of Almanbira
[Almondbury]; John, son of Jordan, of land in Colresly; Robert, son of Alan of Claiton, of land at Wetelaia [Whitley]; Jordan, son of Jordan of Floketun, of land held from Martin with money from the service of Simon, son of Peter; Walter, son of Godwin of Heton, of a toft and croft in Heton; Jordan, son of Matthew of Flockton, of a toft and two acres in Flockton; Richard, son of Alan of Weterleia [Whitley], of twenty five acres north of Brerewell, and a wood and free common belonging to the townshipof Clayton; Adam, son of Jordan of Queteleye [Whitley], of land in Queteleye; Umfrud de Lasceles, of one toft and Land in Lepton, by Alexander of Whitley, of land in Whitley: witnesses: William of Notton, Alan de Condall, Matthew de Seppett, Alan of Crigleston, John, son of Jordan of Heton, Thom de Ledes and others.

(3). Deed by Adam, son of Adam de Byrkeg de Cumberward to Peter of Colriselay, granting the land and messuage of the Hospital of Jerusalem in Crossland, witnesses: Henry de Dicton, John de Clyth and others.

The Knights Templar was a Christian military order founded by Hugo de Payens and Bernard of Clairvaulx to defend pilgrims travelling between Europe and the Holy Land. The order was established in England during the reign of Henry II and quickly gained a large estate throughout several counties, and Yorkshire in particular. They enjoyed patronage under several kings, especially Richard I, King John and Henry III and were noted for their financial dealings. The order was suppressed by order of Philip IV of France in 1307, and later, in England in 1308.

The Knights Hospitallers, or the Hospitallers of St John of Jerusalem, now the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem was a parallel organisation founded to help sick pilgrims travelling to the Holy Land. As with the Knights Templar, the Knights Hospitallers had a military function and gained large estates in the twelfth century. In the 1140s the Order was granted ten acres of land in Clerkenwell, which became their headquarters and of which the gateway still remains and is now the museum of the Order in England. After the fall of the kingdom of Jerusalem, the order moved its headquarters, briefly to Cyprus, then until 1522 to Rhodes, and finally, Malta.

Thursday 17 July 2014, 11.00am
Bloomsbury London
Bloomsbury House
24 Maddox Street


15th July 9.30am - 5.30pm
16th July 9.30am - 7.30pm
Day of Sale from 9.30am